This isn’t how I wanted the American century to end

I’m not at all a fan of America playing the world’s policeman. We’ve done some good stuff, such as fighting the Axis and the Marshall Plan after WW II. We’ve also done a lot of crappy stuff: sending combat troops into Vietnam on false pretenses, overthrowing democratically elected governments, invading Iraq on false pretenses, drone strikes on innocent people. And supporters of America doing this simultaneously argue that it’s completely justified by self-interest (even nation on Earth looks out for Number One) and by exceptionalism (we’re America! We’re a force for good in the world!).

Not that I’m saying the U.S. is uniquely horrible. There’s no nation that doesn’t have a bloody history, it’s just that I don’t think that’s an excuse for not doing better. A little more caution about separating the sheep from the goats and then bombing the goats would be a good thing. That said, we do have legitimate interests in the world, and we do need to manage them. Carefully.

Too bad.  As noted at the link, Trump political hacks are firing skilled career diplomats for doing things like mentioning Obama in a speech (our leader has such a fragile ego, have you noticed?) or criticizing Trump (one ambassador, Carla Sands, shut up a Trump critic speaking overseas, while also decrying supposed PC Speech Suppression on college campuses).

The loss of trained diplomats, the number of posts open, the lack of people applying, all these are bad for us. It’s not like our State Department hasn’t pulled its share of boners, but diplomacy is still important. Particularly when Trump pulling shit like backing out and leaving the Kurds on the Syria/Turkey border vulnerable to Turkish attack. Or pulling out of the Iran nuclear deal because Republicans just hate it (they’ve never gotten over the embassy occupation in 1979), plus Obama signed it (I really agree with the theory Trump can’t stand being reminded The Black Man was a better president).  He’s demonstrating to everyone that we’re an unreliable, untrustworthy ally or partner. It’s great for Putin and for China to see the West in diplomatic disarray and to see us losing influence, bad for us. And, of course, it’s not like China or Russia are going to use their influence for good if they step up as superpowers.

Part of the problem is that a lot of Republicans really don’t care about diplomacy. They’d be happy if we just went and blew up everyone who pissed them off overseas, at least as long as they’re dark-skinned. That diplomats actually try to prevent wars is part of why they’re supposedly bad. A lot of conservatives want an American empire. Some were horrified (as noted at the link) by “the happy international situation that emerged in 1991 … characterized by the spread of democracy, free trade” instead of America going out, busting heads and imposing its will on the world. After all, they and their kids aren’t the ones who are going to fight and die to create American dominance.

The one way Republicans are kind of internationalist is that they’re cool with Trump forging ties with the far-right overseas. Which admittedly is nothing new, we’ve done business with tyrants for years. But it’s never been a good thing.

If America wanted to gradually withdraw from trying to shape the world, that might be a plus. But taking a chainsaw to international relations ain’t the way to go.

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Wonder Woman: The Million-Dollar Penny

So earlier this year I started a project I’ve wanted to do for a while: rereading the Silver Age, month-by-month. Or more accurately, that limited part of the Silver Age I actually have in original or reprint. I started with Barry Allen’s debut as the Flash in 1956’s  Showcase #4 —And now I’m up to mid-1959. Superhero books are starting to come out again (the early 1950s, that was a dead zone in comics) and I have more stuff in reprints, including Wonder Woman‘s Silver Age run. About two weeks ago, I read the earliest Silver Age WW I have, Wonder Woman #98, “The Million-Dollar Penny.” It’s a minor landmark, arguably the first Earth-One Wonder Woman story, and the first Robert Kanigher wrote with Ross Andru and Mike Esposito as penciler/inker instead of Wonder Woman’s original artist, H.G. Peters. It’s enough of a departure from William Marston’s Golden Age work I thought it worth looking at the changes in detail.

Marston’s WW origin shows the Amazons created by Aphrodite as a symbol of women’s independence and a force for pacifism. Kanigher ducks all that feminism and pacifism stuff and simply establishes the Amazons as general fighters against tyranny and oppression in the ancient world, much as Marvel’s Golem isn’t specifically a defender of the Jews. Wonder Woman is shown being one of them back then, which would make her centuries old. I doubt Kanigher had that worked out as he later showed her as Wonder Girl helping the Amazons find Paradise Island, and still later implied she was young enough in the present her missing father was still alive. (an odd retcon I covered for Screen Rant).

The story proper kicks off when Aphrodite tells Hippolyta to send one Amazon into Man’s World to fight injustice, rather than battle WW II. That’s because it’s not presented as a flashback but as something happening at the time it came out; Kanigher’s effectively retconning WW’s history and rebooting her.

Unlike Marston, Hippolyta’s issue isn’t that she doesn’t want her daughter leaving Paradise Island, it’s that when the Amazons compete for the privilege, she’s terrified she’ll choose Diana out of favoritism. Diana’s solution is to have every Amazon wear a mask of her face, so Hippolyta won’t know who to pick. This plays into one of Kanigher’s favorite motifs in the years to come, pitting Wonder Woman against a double, as in the cover image. Needless to say she wins, and almost immediately has to save Steve Trevor, parachuting out of a plane over Paradise Island; if he sets foot on the island, the Amazons will lose their power. Not to worry: Diana saves him without letting him touch down and returns him to the U.S. There she faces her first test: Aphrodite has ordered her to turn one U.S. cent into a million dollars within 24 hours, with the return on the money going to help a children’s charity.

This is another trope Kanigher liked to use, of Wonder Woman being set some impossible challenge. He used it as far back as “The Five Tasks of Thomas Tighe” in #38.  The result is a somewhat rambling story in which Wonder Woman tries several ways to earn the money, but gets distracted by an eagle stealing the penny, and by an enemy submarine from some unidentified nation. At the last minute she finds a solution: there’s a bridge that needs building, with a million for the contractor who does it. So she takes the penny and by stretching it out with her super-strength, makes a massive amount of copper she then makes into the bridge. Which makes absolute zero sense, even by the physics of superhero comics, but that’s characteristic of Kanigher’s Silver Age superhero writing too (one reason he worked better on a book with a goofier tone, such as DC’s Metal Men).

It’s more of a departure from Marston than I realized when I read it in Showcase Presents Wonder Woman the first time. And very much a harbinger of what was to come.

#SFWApro. Top image by Carmine Infantino, bottom by Andru/Esposito. All rights to images remain with current holder.

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Cover art for Tuesday

OMG, she took off her face and shot rays out of it!

She’s been a baaaad girl!No discrimination here.And one by John Fernie. I suppose a round trip to murder is better than a one-way trip.#SFWApro. Art on all but the last is uncredited.

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Sexist pigs and other repellent people

Some right-to-lifers are pushing for miscarriages to undergo burial. Pennsylvania forced-birthers are topping that with a bill that would fine doctors if they don’t provide death certificates and burial for fertilized eggs that never implanted. An Ohio bill would ban abortion with no exceptions except a life-or-death situation for the mother, and not one caused by the pregnancy.

Shitbags support shitbags: Sean Hannity wants accused sexual harasser Bill O’Reilly back on Fox News. His victims are seething, especially as their settlements include no-rehire provisions.

How science gets women wrong.

Neo-Nazis ask “What is the benefit of satisfying women?”

Amy Chua was an influential law professor who supported Brett Kavanaugh’s nomination to the Supreme Court. By an amazing coincidence, her daughter is now his clerk. A look at how meritocratic our law-school system isn’t, though it helps if a woman looks like a fashion model. And Slate looks at how hard it is to fight harassment in law school (Chua’s husband’s been accused of it).

Texas JP Dianne Hensley disregards a state directive that if she chooses to conduct weddings, she can’t discriminate against gays.

Republican senatorial candidate Roy Moore had no trouble violating state rules for judges or defying them to put a Ten Commandments graven idol in his courthouse. But he’s shocked that his suspension (according to him) didn’t follow the rules.

A witness at the impeachment hearings jokes that Donald Trump cannot make his son Barron into a baron — which gave Republican special snowflakes something to whine about.

George Zimmerman, having shot and killed Trayvon Martin, is now suing the Martin family and the prosecutor for supposedly defaming Zimmerman.

Another day, another preacher outed as a sexual predator. And the Catholic Church is struggling with its own wave of sex-abuse lawsuits.

By the time Trump is gone, he’ll have done tremendous damage to the social safety net, environmental protection and other important government functions. For example doing his best to leave more people without coverage.

And you know how Trump recently pardoned war criminals? A few months back, he also ordered the Navy to strip the prosecutors in those cases of their medals.

Republicans claimed they were outraged when Ihlan Omar criticized the AIPAC pro-Israel lobby; Trump telling Jews they love their money too much to vote Democratic probably won’t generate any fuss.

Infowars’ Alex Jones, as seen by an employee. Not pretty.

Neither is life inside the luggage company away, due to bullying management. LGM adds some thoughts about places “where bosses not only treat employees like shit but treat trivial incidents in an ordinary business like they’re engaged in the Manhattan Project”

A police commander tells his people: arrest more blacks and Hispanics, fewer whites and Asians.

 

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From stage magic to cats to Wakanda: books read

CARTER BEATS THE DEVIL by Glen David Gold starts well as magician Charles Carter (a fictionalized version of a real conjurer) apparently murders President Harding during a show, following which we flashback to Carter’s life story, showing how he rose to vaudeville glory in spite of a star magician’s determination to kill Carter’s career. Unfortunately after a tragic twist about a quarter in, the book turns into an ambling mess: Carter drifts aimlessly, falls for a blind girl, helps Philo Farnsworth develop his concept for television and ducks Secret Service agents out to avenge Harding’s death (the sequence where they throw Carter, bound and bagged into a river, is quite a nail-biter). I lost interest (the 600-page length didn’t help).

TOTAL CAT MOJO: The Ultimate Guide to Life With Your Cat by YouTube cat guru Jackson Galaxy argues that the key to having a happy cat is making them confident that your home is their territory, while discouraging occasional problems such as knocked-over tchotchkes (“Museum putty is good.”) or cats jumping on the cooking surfaces. Like Catwise, a lot of this was inapplicable or impractical — at this point there’s no point to giving Wisp a private room, even if I could move her into one — but certainly a lot of food for thought (where can I put a litterbox the dogs won’t be digging in it to eat her poop?).

THE WEDDING DATE by Jasmine Guillory has a handsome doctor recruit a sexy city official he’s just met to be his date at his ex’s wedding (his planned date canceled); needless to say they both decide they’d like the girlfriend fantasy to become real, leading to a series of long-distance dates, sex, banter and meeting each others’ circle of friends. The kickoff to the book was fun, but after that the dates get repetitious fast, with the big conflict (both leads are commitment-phobic) not kicking in until almost the end. Not a winner.

SHURI: Vibranium 24/7 by Nnedi Okorafor, Vita Ayala, Paul Davidson and Rachael Stott was a pleasant surprise, departing from the political stories that have been T’Challa’s bread and butter since Don McGregor’s Bronze Age Black Panther. Instead we get a wild SF adventure involving a music-loving alien bug (the title comes from a Wakandan song it’s constantly imitating), Storm, Shuri, the Miles Morales Spider-Man, Ms. Marvel, and Wakandan ancestral memory. Immensely entertaining, except for the alien bug, Lubber — it’s fondness for music made me think of the Glop from late Silver Age Wonder Woman and I do not mean that as a compliment. That’s the only flaw in an otherwise excellent TPB though.

#SFWApro. Photo is mine.

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Christmas movie binging begins!

But before I start the constant flow of Christmas treacle into my brain, I caught a few other items Thanksgiving weekend:

A young couple become something RICH AND STRANGE (1931) when a relative’s gift of money lets them travel around the world, only to find themselves pulled apart en route by everything from seasickness to romantic rivals (a dignified veteran falling for the wife, a golddigging fake princess preying on the husband). This Alfred Hitchcock film has some striking visual moments including the husband’s silent-comedy style evening commute and its frustrations and a moonlight walk across a ship’s desk that focuses entirely on feet and floor. However the film’s story is trite and uninteresting, even though The Hitchcock Romance considers it a masterpiece. “The thing about beautiful women like you is that you don’t want enough.”

I had much more fun with ROADSIDE PROPHETS (1992) whose biker protagonist strikes up a new friendship only to have the guy die minutes later. The biker impulsively pays for the cremation, then sets out to scatter his buddy’s ashes at the place in Nevada he requested — assuming the place is findable. Along the way the protagonist meets the usual array of road-trip oddballs including a hero-worshipping teen, a vagabond stripper, a terminally ill couple, an officiousmotel clerk, John Cusack as a dine-and-dash petty crook (“It’s entrapment — the sign said ‘free buffet’!”) and David Carradine, Timothy Leary, Arlo Guthrie and Abby Hoffman in cameos. Self-consciously quirky, but a lot of fun. “I didn’t get to be a management trainee by breaking rules!”

And now the Christmas stuff — CHRISTMAS PERFECTION (2018) combines the premise of 2007’s  Snow Globe (the female protagonist is magically transported to the perfect Christmas village) with William Dean Howell’s short story Christmas Every Day, in that the village never stops celebrating Christmas. No surprise, the protagonist is soon sick of perfection and thinking her imperfect male best friend is looking much more attractive. This is too sugary and low-key to work for me, and there’s something unsatisfying in her BFF/love interest (like they carefully calibrated the soft spot between “conventional” and “too oddball to be sexy.”). “This is some kind of reality show where they gaslight the children of divorce with happiness!”

SNOW GLOBE (2007), by contrast, seems to be turning into a Christmas perennial for me. Christina Milian is really likable as the lead, a Brooklyn baker who’d love an old-fashioned Christmas but her Italian/Cuban family are so loud and obnoxious and green lasagna is their traditional Christmas dinner — but then Milian stumbles into a world inside a snow globe where everything Christmas is picture-perfect. Part of why I like this is that where the preceding movie buts the blame on the protagonist (too much of a control freak to tolerate imperfection), Milian has valid reasons for getting fed up with her family, even though they all work it out in the end. Rewatching, I do wonder about how the magic works — the village is literally in the snow globe, but it somehow has an independent existence — but like wondering how Santa’s sleigh gets around the world so fast, it doesn’t stop me enjoying.  “Aren’t you having an existential crisis right now?”

I’ve had the soundtrack of RAGTIME (based on E.L. Doctorow’s novel) on my iPod for a while and love it, so I plunked down the money for TYG and me to catch a local production. It was money well spent as 1906 America deals with Emma Goldman, polar exploration, Evelyn Nesbit, Harry Houdini and a Ragtime pianist who retaliates for his true love’s death from a police beating with a wave of terrorism, all set to music. Powerful, though downbeat (reminding me of the book American Movie Musical‘s argument that where musicals traditionally showed music bridging strife in the community, modern productions no longer see the rifts as bridgeable). The production was minimalist in design (you can see the set above, though parts of the show took place on the risers above the audience) and used modern dress but effective nonetheless. My only complaint is the way the script paints Nesbit, a rape victim, as some kind of publicity-seeking adulteress. “When you’re trapped/And destruction seems imminent/Look to Houdini/The ultimate immigrant!”

#SFWApro. All rights to poster and set design (photo is mine) remain with current holders.

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Now that’s what I call productive. Well, except for today

TYG, you see, has a weekend trip out of town. So this morning I made a quick run to get some dog meds and other stuff while TYG was still here; that way I don’t have to go through the routine of setting up Plushie’s cage and putting him in it, then placating the dogs after I come back, having ABANDONED THEM OH NOOOOES! That threw me off my game, plus TYG getting ready to go also pulled focus from my writing. Not that she needed my help, but as she was packing, she was chatting, and I was chatting back, and then we had the kissing goodbye, etc, etc.

(Plush Dog contemplates my ankle)

And the weather was cool enough that lunch walkies was a long one. That not only took a chunk of time out of the early afternoon (no complaints, the pups are entitled to it) but I was quite exhausted by the time we got back. I just could not get my head in the game enough to focus on work, so I just blogged for next week (and an Atomic Junkshop post that will go live tomorrow). So all I got done today was 500 words on Oh the Places You’ll Go.

Up to that point, things were productive, despite having a dental appointment Tuesday and Trixie having her recurring tummy troubles (fortunately we have meds, and I can get them into her even if she doesn’t want to eat). In addition to submitting eight Leaf articles I submitted one short story and a revised version of my Space Invaders proposal to McFarland. They liked it, so it’s a go subject to them approving a table of contents and sample chapter; I’ll submit that stuff next month.

I finished the first two chapters of Sexist Myths and Why They’re Bullshit, and got some good feedback on the title from my friends on FB (one of whom still likes Undead Sexist Cliches so I may reconsider it). The footnotes for the next few chapters are in much poorer shape, but hopefully it won’t slow me down too much.

And I got two chapters of Impossible Takes a Little Longer done. So far the changes have gone down smooth, but tougher changes lie ahead. Fingers crossed.

So that was my productive week. The weekend will be spent here at home with the pups, watching movies and doing some writing.

#SFWApro. Photo is mine.

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Filed under Impossible Takes a Little Longer, Nonfiction, Personal, Short Stories, The Dog Ate My Homework, Time management and goals, Undead Sexist Cliches: The Book, Writing

Wisp in Transition

So this week, when I open the door in the morning to give Wisp breakfast, she runs in and demands petting instead. It’s quite flattering that she chooses me over food, especially as she always used to go for food first. Of course, it could be that she likes being in where it’s warm (though I don’t think so — she does this even when the temperature’s bearable), or that she’s getting extra meals somewhere else (possible). She’s also much more comfortable with having the door closed or almost closed.

But it’s a little tricky dealing with this new Wisp. Partly because morning is my most productive time and it’s when I least want pet distractions (like the dogs, Wisp doesn’t seem terribly moved by this). And partly because I don’t really know how to get her outside again. This morning I tried just getting up and moving away to see what she’d do; she started exploring the house. Which is cool, but I’m not comfortable leaving her unsupervised yet. Particularly when she’s in while the dogs are downstairs. They’ve gotten along decently so far, but I’m worried Plushie might try and rush at her for being on his turf, and she might retaliate with a scratch. It would be very hard to explain a banged-up Plushie to TYG. Plus, he whimpers so when he’s in pain, even a little.

So I can’t really leave her alone, but I can’t sit there indefinitely until she’s done. This morning, though, I gave her about ten minutes of petting, then put food outside. She was ready for it by then.

If it reaches the point where she just settles in and I can trust her and the dogs together, things will be much simpler. I think …

We are definitely not bringing Pogo into the house. But he is handy when Wisp leaves food on the deck (for the record, we usually clean up the bowls quicker than this).#SFWApro. Photos are mine.

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A friend’s Kickstarter and other writing/creative links

My friend Michele Berger has been asked to contribute to a Kickstarter-funded anthology, so I’m boosting the signal. Details on Michele’s blog.

Here’s how Donald Trump Junior got to be a best-selling author. Unfortunately it’s not a technique most of us writers can afford.

Physical books still outsell ebooks. And small bookstores are doing better than they used to.

Why provide prison libraries when prisons and private businesses can screw inmates over by forcing them to use tablets?

The seismic shift in the streaming services boom. Disney’s streaming service may be why they’re now yanking Fox movies from playing in revival and art houses — which is bad news for the theaters in question.

John Scalzi on outgrowing things you used to love.

An author’s account of her experiences dealing with ChiZine.

SF editorial legend John W. Campbell has become controversial in recent years. Cory Doctorow explains why. Someone else (I’m not sure who said it) pointed out that it’s not just a matter of Campbell having, as Doctorow notes, some really horrible racist beliefs. As the field’s top editor back in the day, he wielded immense influence: even writers who published elsewhere frequently tried his magazines first, so they wrote to suit his taste. Which was not always good (I’ll be coming back to the Doctorow piece in a later post).

A quick guide to copyright laws for art.

A guide to the role of the comma in contract law.

Digital piracy is hurting indie comics.  Which by coincidence was also a topic at Atomic Junkshop.

Jazz pianist Errol Garner was the first musical artist to sue his record label and win.

Showing how successful characters are often due to chance, here’s how Sabrina the Teenage Witch only came to TV when Filmation couldn’t do a Bewitched cartoon.

Preparing for a new opera role.

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Two views of the 1970s

As I was a teenager during the 1970s, I have a fondness for the decade irrelevant of its actual merits. After finishing Southern Discomfort back in January, I reread one book on the decade and read a new one. They present such different perspectives they make a useful reminder that decades are not easily summed up. Black, white, rich, poor, gay, straight, right-wing, left-wing, they all shape our perspective. Richard Linklatter’s acclaimed Dazed and Confused was set in 1976 when I was in high school, but its Texas students might as well have been Martians for all I connected with them.

The reread was Thomas Hine’s THE GREAT FUNK: Falling Apart and Coming Together (On a Shag Rug) In the Seventies. Hine’s view of the decade is that the repeated blows of stagflation (stagnant wages + inflation), Vietnam, Watergate and the oil crisis left America uncertain about where it was going. But for a lot of people that was an opening: if the old ways weren’t working, why not try something new instead? New styles (“The seventies weren’t about bad taste, they were about rejecting taste as yet another form of authority.”), women’s liberation, sex manuals, mysticism and interest in the paranormal (one of the decade elements I played with in Southern Discomfort), consciousness raising, fashion revolution (when the big names in fashion declared the miniskirt was dead, nobody listened), Our Bodies, Ourselves (“The book’s message is that the system has failed us, so we must come together to fix things, and our feelings while doing this are as important as the hard facts.”) and being open to people whose new direction wasn’t the same as yours. Even allowing for nostalgic bias, Hine captures a lot of what I like about the decade.

By contrast, Ron Perlstein’s  THE INVISIBLE BRIDGE: The Fall of Nixon and the Rise of Reagan (one of a trilogy looking at conservatives from Goldwater to Reagan) points out that faced with a chance to try new ways of doing things, a big chunk of America insisted they weren’t going to, and the hippies couldn’t make them. They wanted to believe America could and should be like the 1950s and hated being reminded otherwise, and they didn’t want to deal with the implications of Vietnam, Watergate or the Congressional investigations that showed the CIA and FBI had spied on American citizens in defiance of the law.

Enter Ronald Reagan. As Perlstein sees it, Reagan’s genius was that he divined what voters wanted to hear and gave it to them (while Perlstein was writing pre-2016, it’s hard not to see a parallel with Trump). Yes, America was the greatest country on Earth. Yes, we could be proud of what we’d done in Vietnam. No, Nixon was not a bad man (in an eerie echo of 2019, Reagan even compared impeachment to “lynching.”) No, the FBI and CIA were great American institutions, it’s the people questioning them who are bad. Never mind that his stories were often lies and also made no sense (if unelected goverment bureaucrats are bad, why are the unelected bureaucrats running the FBI and the CIA so wonderful?), they reassured people they were right not to doubt, right to think there was no need to change and try new things.

Reagan got a considerable boost from a new political funding mechanism called PACs, and from more sophisticated operations for polling and staying in touch with voters (it seems Sen. Jesse Helms was cutting edge with this back in the day). As a result, when Reagan challenged President Gerald Ford for the nomination in 1976, it came right down to the wire at the convention before Ford won, only to lose to Jimmy Carter (whom Perlstein sees as offering a similar feel-good snake oil to Reagan, though with a Southern flavor).  At 800 pages, the book is a densely detailed read — the blow-by-blow of Republican infighting was more detailed than I really needed to know, though as I’ve said before, that’s a matter of taste, not a flaw in the book. One detail that might be a flaw is that while Perlstein portrays right-wing opposition to Roe v. Wade, more recent articles show there was a lot of acceptance and support for legalized abortion on the right; I dont know how the two reconcile.

What is a flaw in both books is the effort to shape pop culture to their themes. Hine argues that Rosemary’s Baby and The Exorcist both reflect the baby boom’s ambivalence about settling down and having kids. Perlstein sees The Exorcist as putting the modern woman in her place (a single mom needs the help of traditional Catholic ritual to save her child from Satan!) and sees cynicism (The Parallax View0 and nostalgia (American Graffiti) in the movies as a product of their time; new therapeutic approaches such as EST, Scientology and Primal Scream Therapy likewise show a desperate search for a way to deal with what’s gone wrong in the country

I don’t buy it (even though I’ve also described Parallax View as a product of its time). There were child-centered horrors before the 1970s and cynicism wasn’t new either; the entire noir subgenre of the 1940s and 1950s shows a corrupt world that can’t be completely purified. Scientology started in the 1950s and while EST and primal screams might be newer and look flakier than psychoanalysis, it’s not like going into analysis was a more sensible, realistic approach to self-healing (Robert Bloch’s fiction frequently equated it to the lowest of superstition). Not everything fits neatly into a worldview or an interpretation.

Reading both books make me very glad I didn’t try to make Southern Discomfort any sort of statement about the era because that would be way beyond my abilities. Decades are big and complicated … but in a way, that’s liberating. All we have to do is carve off one small slice and make that real, not the entire thing; Dazed and Confused may not have worked for me, but that doesn’t mean it isn’t true to its era. Hopefully my book (allowing for the elves and the magic) is too.

#SFWApro. Cover photos by Neal Barr and National Archives, all rights to image remain with current holder.

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